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Earthworm Technical Papers (An annelid of the oligochaete class, the earthworm shows the well-developed segmentation that is characteristic of its phylum. Although the major nervous, circulatory, and digestive organs are located near the head, more posterior segments contain peripheral structures for all of these systems. These posterior segments are virtually identical to each other. Earthworms are hermaphroditic, possessing both male and female internal reproductive organs.)


 
 

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Invertebrate
 

I   INTRODUCTION

Invertebrate, any animal lacking a backbone. Invertebrates are by far the most numerous animals on Earth. Nearly 2 million species have been identified to date. These 2 million species make up about 98 percent of all the animals identified in the entire animal kingdom. Some scientists believe that the true number of invertebrate species may be as high as 100 million and that the work of identifying and classifying invertebrate life has only just begun.

Invertebrates live in a vast range of habitats, from forests and deserts to caves and seabed mud. In oceans and lakes they form part of the plankton—an immense array of miniature living organisms that drift in the surface currents. Invertebrates are also found in the soil beneath our feet and in the air above our heads. Some are powerful fliers, using wings to propel themselves, but others, particularly the smallest invertebrates, float on the slightest breeze. These tiny invertebrates form clouds of aerial plankton that drift unseen through the skies.

Although the majority of invertebrates are small, a few reach impressive sizes. The true heavyweights of the invertebrate world are giant squid, which can be over 18 m (59 ft) long and can weigh more than 2,000 kg (4,000 lb). The longest are ribbon worms, also known as nemerteans, whose pencil-thin bodies can grow up to 55 m (180 ft) from head to tail. At the other end of the size scale, animals called rotifers rank among the smallest invertebrates of all. Some species may reach 3 mm (0.12 in) in size, but most are less than 0.001 mm (0.00004 in), smaller than the largest bacteria.

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II   PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Anatomy of a Typical Earthworm

Due to their numbers and variety, invertebrates share only a single trait in common: the absence of a backbone. Many invertebrates have no hard body parts at all. These soft-bodied invertebrates, which include earthworms, keep their shape by maintaining an internal pressure, similar to the air pressure within an inflated balloon. However, having a soft body has disadvantages, one of which is that it leaves animals vulnerable to attack from predators.

To defend against predators, other invertebrates have evolved exoskeletons, hard outer coverings such as the shells found in clams and mussels and the body cases that surround adult insects. As well as protecting the animal, these exoskeletons also provide anchorage for muscles. On land, a body case is also useful because it prevents the water that bathes internal structures from evaporating. As a result the animal does not dry up and die. Arthropods, animals with a hard, outer skeleton and a jointed body and limbs, make up the single largest group of invertebrates. Arthropods include insects, crustaceans, and arachnids, such as spiders and ticks.

Invertebrates have two basic body plans. Some invertebrates, such as corals and sea anemones, have a circular body plan arranged around a central mouth, similar to the way spokes radiate out from the hub of a wheel. This type of body plan is known as radial symmetry. Animals with radial symmetry often spend their adult lives fastened in one place, like the sea anemone that attaches to a rock, waiting for food to pass by. By contrast, invertebrates that move in search of food, such as flatworms, have an elongated body plan known as bilateral symmetry. Invertebrates with bilateral symmetry have right and left halves that mirror each other, and they typically have a definite front and back end. They have a head that often contains one or more pairs of eyes, together with organs that can taste, smell, or touch. However, major sense organs are often found on other body parts among some invertebrates. Katydids, for example, have hearing organs on their front legs, just below knee-like joints.

 

This captivating video zeroes in on the tiny organisms often seen but rarely identified in a worm bin. Under Warren's microscope, well-lit colorful, and in focus, busy little creatures such as springtails and mites amuse and entertain as they busily go about in search of food or shelter. Concise, interesting, and informative narration makes this video not only fun to watch, but another excellent teaching tool for all ages.

Compared to vertebrates (animals with backbones), most invertebrates have simple nervous systems, and they behave almost entirely by instinct. This system works well most of the time, even though these animals cannot learn from their mistakes. Moths, for example, repeatedly flutter around bright lights, even at the risk of getting burned. Notable exceptions are octopuses and their close relatives, which are thought to be the most intelligent animals in the invertebrate world. Studies have shown that these animals have the ability to learn. In some experiments they have solved simple puzzles, such as opening containers to retrieve food.

Invertebrates differ from each other internally in a wide variety of ways. Some have respiratory organs, circulatory systems, and excretory organs for getting rid of waste. The simplest invertebrates, such as placozoans, survive with few or no specialized organs at all. These animals absorb what they need from their surroundings—a way of life that works only in watery habitats and only with small animals.

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III   TYPES OF INVERTEBRATES

Zoologists (scientists who study animals) classify invertebrates into about 30 major groups, known as phyla. These phyla vary enormously in the number of species they contain. Arthropods (phylum Arthropoda) are the invertebrate phylum with the most species—more than one million known species and countless more awaiting discovery. The mollusks (phylum Mollusca) make up the second largest group of invertebrates, with at least 50,000 species. Among the simplest invertebrates are the sponges (phylum Porifera). Other major invertebrate phyla include the cnidarians (phylum Cnidaria), echinoderms (phylum Echinodermata), and several different groups of worms, including flatworms (phylum Platyhelminthes), roundworms (phylum Nematoda), and annelids (phylum Annelida).

Arthropods live in every habitat on Earth from mountaintops to hydrothermal vents, springs of hot water located on the deep ocean floor. Surrounded by protective exoskeletons, arthropods have tubular legs that bend at flexible joints. This unique characteristic sets them apart from all other invertebrates, and it enables them to hop, walk, and run.

Insects dominate the arthropod phylum. Making up 90 percent of all arthropods, insects have a strong claim to be the most successful animals in the world. On land, they live in almost every habitat, aided by their small size and, for many, their ability to fly. They also live in fresh water, but remarkably, they have failed to colonize the sea. Some zoologists believe this is because crustaceans have already exploited this habitat to its fullest.

Mollusks make up the second largest group of invertebrates. Even by invertebrate standards mollusks are extremely varied. Mollusks include snails, clams, octopuses, and squid, as well as some lesser-known animals, such as chitons and monoplacophorans. Some mollusks, such as bivalves, are sedentary animals, while others such as squid are jet-propelled predators that are the swiftest swimmers in the invertebrate world. Most sedentary mollusks are filter-feeders—that is, they feed on tiny organisms that they strain from water. Other mollusks, including snails and other gastropods, scrape up their food using a radula—a ribbonlike mouthpart that is unique to mollusks and covered with rows of microscopic teeth.

Sponges have many unique characteristics that set them apart from other kinds of animal life. They are the only animals with skeletons made of microscopic mineral spikes and the only ones that feed by pumping water through hollow pores. Some of their cells are remarkably like free-living protozoans called collar flagellates. To evolutionary biologists, this resemblance strongly suggests that sponges and other invertebrates arose from protozoan-like ancestors.

Cnidarians include jellyfish, sea anemones, and corals. Their bodies have two layers of cells, a central digestive cavity, and a mouth surrounded by stinging tentacles. Most cnidarians are quite small, but the largest jellyfish—a species from the North Atlantic Ocean—can grow over 2 m (7 ft) across, with tentacles over 30 m (100 ft) long.

Among the major phyla, the echinoderms are the most distinctive and unusually shaped. They include starfish, sea urchins, and sea cucumbers and are the only animals with a five-pointed design. They live in the sea and move with the help of tiny fluid-filled feet—another feature found nowhere else in the animal world.

  Three creative educators collaborated to produce this guide for classroom and home. Centered around a classroom worm bin, this curriculum uses over 150 worm-related activities to develop problem-solving and critical thinking skills in children grades 4-8. Rich in content in "Wormformation" paragraphs integrates science, mathematics, language arts, biology, solid waste issues, ecology, and the environment in ways that draw children into the learning process. Three sections include "The World of Worms," "Worms at Work," and "Beyond the Bin." Includes 16 appendicies, resource materials, teacher's guidelines, bibliography, glossary, and index. User has permission to photocopy for use in the classroom

Zoologists recognize several different groups of worms. The phylum known as flatworms contains the simplest animals possessing heads. Nerves and sense organs are concentrated in the head. Most flatworms are paper-thin and live in a variety of wet or damp habitats, including the digestive systems of other animals. Roundworms represent another phylum. They are more complex than flatworms, with cylindrical bodies and mouthparts designed to pierce their food. Although flatworms have digestive systems with only one opening, the roundworm digestive system runs from the mouth straight through its body to an excretory opening—a body plan shared by more advanced invertebrates as well as vertebrates.

Although roundworms are extremely abundant, they often go unseen. So, too, do many worms that live exclusively in the sea, such as spoonworms (phylum Echiura), peanut worms (phylum Sipuncula), and pogonophores (phylum Pogonophora). Annelids are a large group of worms that contain some more familiar species. Among them are earthworms—annelids that feed by burrowing through the soil. An earthworm’s body is divided into repeated segments or rings, a feature shared by annelids as a whole.

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IV   REPRODUCTION AND LIFE CYCLE

Invertebrates display a wide variety of methods of reproduction. Some invertebrates reproduce by asexual reproduction, in which all offspring are genetically identical to the parent. Asexual reproduction methods include fragmentation, in which animals divide into two or more offspring, and budding, in which animals sprout buds that break away to take up life on their own. The majority of invertebrates reproduce sexually. The genes from two parents recombine to produce genetically unique individuals. For most invertebrates, sexual reproduction involves laying eggs. With a few exceptions, such as scorpions and spiders, most invertebrates abandon their eggs as soon as they are laid, leaving them to develop on their own.

When invertebrate eggs hatch, the animals that emerge often look nothing like their parents. Some are so different that, in the past, zoologists mistook them for entirely new species. Young like this are known as larvae. As they grow up, larvae change shape, a process known as metamorphosis. A larval stage enables invertebrates to live in different habitats at different stages of their lives. For example, adult mussels live fastened to rocks, but their larvae live floating among plankton. By having larvae that drift with the currents, mussels are able to disperse and find homes with new food sources for their adult life.

The change from larva to adult is quite gradual in many invertebrates, such as crabs and lobsters, but in insects it can be much more abrupt. Caterpillars, the larvae of butterflies and moths, often live for several months, but they take just a few days to turn into adults. During the transition stage, known as the pupa, the caterpillar’s body is broken down and reassembled, forming an adult insect that is ready to breed.

Most invertebrates are short-lived animals, but slow-growing species often break this rule. Wood-boring beetles can live well into their teens, while queen termites can live 40 years or more. But in the invertebrate world, the real veterans live in the sea. Growth lines on bivalve shells suggest that some clams can live to be 200 years old or more. A similar age has been claimed for pogonophoran worms living around hydrothermal vents in the darkness of the deep seafloor.

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V   EVOLUTION

As the simplest animals, invertebrates date back to the time when animal life first began in ancient shallow seas. Zoologists are uncertain when this was, because the first invertebrates were small and soft-bodied and left no direct fossil remains. However, some scientists believe that strange patterns preserved in sedimentary rocks dating back to 1 billion years ago may be the fossilized tracks and burrows of ancient invertebrates. Other scientists, studying genetic material in living animals, believe that the earliest invertebrates may have appeared even earlier and may already have begun to separate into different phyla before 1 billion years ago.

The oldest recognized fossils of invertebrates date back to the close of the Precambrian period, about 570 million years ago. The best known of these fossil finds, from the Ediacaran Hills in southern Australia, include animals that look like jellyfish and annelid worms. Zoologists disagree about their status. Some think that they might well be ancestors of animals alive today, but others believe they belong to a group of invertebrates that eventually became extinct (see Ediacaran Fauna).

With the start of the Cambrian period 570 million years ago, invertebrate life evolved with almost explosive speed. Due to the appearance of the first invertebrates with exoskeletons, the fossil record provides a rich record of invertebrate life in the Cambrian period. By the time the Cambrian period ended 500 million years ago, all the invertebrate phyla alive today were established.

Between that time and the present, invertebrates spread through the seas and also invaded land. Scientists believe that the first land dwellers were almost certainly arthropods, including the forerunners of wingless insects. During the Carboniferous period, which began 360 million years ago, flying insects appeared, including giant dragonflies with a wingspan of up to 75 cm (30 in). But on land the great expansion of invertebrate life occurred during the Cretaceous period, which started 138 million years ago. Flowering plants first evolved in this period, enabling insects to exploit a whole new source of food and triggering a huge growth in insect life that has continued to this day.

  Worms are the latest (as well as, of course, perhaps the oldest!) trend in earth-friendly gardening, and in this handy guide, the authors of DEAD SNAILS LEAVE NO TRAILS demystify the world of worm wrangling, with everything you need to know to build your own worm bin, make your garden worm-friendly, pamper your soil, and much much more.

While many invertebrates flourished, some of the most successful groups of invertebrates in the fossil record nonetheless became extinct. Giant sea scorpions and trilobites were types of arthropods that thrived for much of the Paleozoic era, about 270 million years ago, but were unable to survive the great mass extinction at the end of the Permian period 240 million years ago. Ammonites (mollusks related to today’s octopuses and squids) fared better. They first appeared during the Silurian period about 435 million years ago and lived into the Mesozoic era, only to vanish at the same time as the dinosaurs, about 65 million years ago. Their intricate massive spiral shells were often superbly preserved as fossils, some measuring almost 2 m (7 ft) across.

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VI   IMPORTANCE OF INVERTEBRATES

The continued prominence of invertebrates, measured by their great diversity and abundance, indicates that these animals have adapted to their ecosystems over millions of years. In so doing, invertebrates have become necessary to the health of Earth’s ecology. For instance, all ecosystems support one or more food chains that form food webs. Each chain begins with plants, known as primary producers, which convert light energy into food. Primary producers are eaten by primary consumers, and secondary consumers eat the plant-eating primary consumers. Decomposers derive their energy from the dead remains of plants and animals. Invertebrates occupy several niches in this food web, acting as primary consumers, secondary consumers, and decomposers.

Many invertebrates have a direct and invaluable impact on their environment. For example, the common earthworm burrows deep below the surface, consuming soil along the way. Coiled soil masses known as casts are excreted from the worm’s digestive system, making the soil more fertile. The earthworm’s burrowing action continually moves mineral-rich soil to the surface, which improves plant growth. The burrowing action also aerates soil, enhancing drainage. In another example, as honey bees, butterflies, and moths flit from flower to flower collecting nectar, they inadvertently transport pollen from the male reproductive structure of one flower to the female reproductive structure of another flower. Known as pollination, this leads to the fertilization of the plant’s seeds—an essential stage in the process of reproduction.

Other invertebrates form mutually beneficial partnerships with other animals. For example, some crabs form alliances with sea anemones, which they fasten to their backs. In this alliance, the crab is protected from predators by the anemone’s stinging tentacles. The anemone, in turn, receives food particles as the crab tears up meat from the animals it consumes. As the crab grows, it periodically sheds its body case. Before doing so, it removes the anemone, and then afterwards puts it back in place.

Humans sometimes share a troubled relationship with invertebrates. A number of invertebrate organisms cause many parasitic diseases in humans and farm animals. These parasites survive by feeding and reproducing inside a host, often causing internal destruction. Some of the most damaging parasites include the flatworm Schistosoma, which causes schistosomiasis; the roundworms that cause hookworm infection; and the roundworm larvae of Trichinella spiralisthat cause trichinosis. Other invertebrates are agricultural pests, destroying plant crops. Insects such as leaf beetles, flea beetles, and young caterpillars feed on the leaves, stems, roots, and flowers of plants. Sucking insects, including aphids, leafhoppers, and scales, remove plant sap, weakening the plants. Sucking insects can also spread disease-causing viruses and bacteria to plants. The larvae and adult stages of some roundworms are parasites of plants. Using specialized structures called stylets, these roundworms pierce plants at the roots to extract cell content, killing the plant.

  Three creative educators collaborated to produce this guide for classroom and home. Centered around a classroom worm bin, this curriculum uses over 150 worm-related activities to develop problem-solving and critical thinking skills in children grades 4-8. Rich in content in "Wormformation" paragraphs integrates science, mathematics, language arts, biology, solid waste issues, ecology, and the environment in ways that draw children into the learning process. Three sections include "The World of Worms," "Worms at Work," and "Beyond the Bin." Includes 16 appendicies, resource materials, teacher's guidelines, bibliography, glossary, and index. User has permission to photocopy for use in the classroom.

Although invertebrates can cause problems for humans, they are more often beneficial. In many cultures, invertebrates such as squid, octopuses, cuttlefish, clams, mussels, crabs, and lobsters are considered popular food items. Scientists use invertebrates for a variety of experiments that have profound benefits for human health. Scientists have performed delicate surgery on the glandular systems of caterpillars and roaches to uncover clues to the function of glands in humans. In other experiments, scientists have given spiders different types of drugs and observed the animals as they created spider webs. The different pattern of spider webs offered a way to distinguish and measure the effects of various drugs. The vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster, also known as the fruit fly, has long been the standard test subject in the field of genetics. In the 1910s and 1920s American geneticist Thomas Hunt Morgan used the vinegar fly to demonstrate that genes lie in a linear fashion on chromosomes, establishing the chromosomal basis of inheritance. In early 2000 studies of vinegar flies continued to advance the field of modern genetics when researchers sequenced the fly’s entire genetic makeup, or genome. The techniques used to reveal the vinegar fly genome were then applied to the efforts to decode the human genome.

The familiar earthworm burrows in soil and feeds on dead materials, extracting organic matter from the soil. This moderately complex animal has a complete digestive tract and a circulatory system.

VII   BENEFITS

In late 1980s and early 1990s agricultural scientists in the world realized the limitations of chemical fertilizers used for fertility management. While on one hand research was initiated to improve the efficiency of chemical fertilizers, on other hand alternative inputs were also considered.

Organic matter recycling has been in use in India for centuries. In 19th and 20th century scientific methods for converting low value organic matter into high value organic composts were developed. The activities of earthworms for recycling of organic matter became the focus of attention by scientific community in mid-1990s.

Initially vermiculture i.e. use of surface. living earthworms was carried-out on a very small scale—mainly for management of kitchen wastes. In 1995 Morarka Foundation, of India, began with 100 earthworms of Eisenia foetida species to develop a commercial process of vermiculture. This pioneering effort enabled Morarka Foundation to become the single largest producer of vermicast in 1998, a position which it still enjoys.

Based on their studies, beginning from 1995, in all documented trials conducted, the users have been requested to rate the performance of vermicast. Each farmer has been requested to list three most important benefits derived by the use of vermicast. The summary analysis of benefits in the order of priorities reported by the farmers is given below:

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First priority benefits

  • Additional price gain from the sale of farm produce.
  • Better taste of food.
  • Bigger size of farm produce.
  • Lesser irrigation water requirement.
  • Cultivation has been possible in saline-alkaline conditions.

Second priority benefits

  • Significantly more tillering, flowering and grain setting.
  • Lesser insects and pests attack on crops.
  • Lesser weed infestation.

Third priority benefits

  • Better germination.
  • Lesser termite attack.
  • Better overall appearance of crops.
  • Improved soil texture

The field data for the monitored trials can be made available on demand.

The entire technology development of vermiculture in partnership with farmers enabled its applications development almost simultaneously. Based on thousands of monitored trials conducted for about ten years and in almost all 15 agro-climatic zones of India, have developed vermicast applications in following categories:

Based on previous use of chemical fertilizers

  • very high chemical fertilizers use areas
  • moderate chemical fertilizers use areas
  • low or negligible chemical fertilizers use areas

They have observed that in the category of very high chemical fertilizers use areas, substitution of vermicast can be done in about 3-5 crop seasons. In moderate chemical fertilizers use areas, the substitution has been done in about 2-3 crop seasons. In low or negligible chemical fertilizers use areas vermicast has been used to meet full requirements of nutrients for crops in first attempt itself.

Based on nutrients requirements of different crops

Generally, all agricultural crops have been categorized based on their nutrients consumption for per unit output from an area. For any given location all crops cultivated in that area are expected to produce certain optimum yields. Based on their experiences, they have divided them into following categories.

  1. In the first category, all rainfed crops such as Sesame, Moong, Urad, Cowpea, Moth, Gwar, Gram, Mustard, Rapeseed, etc. are considered as low nutrients requirement crops. Traditionally no chemical fertilizers are used for their cultivation. In such crops an average of 200-300 kgs of vermicast per acre has given excellent results. 
     
  2. In the second category of rainfed crops such as Bajra, Jwar, Castor, Isabgol, Fenugreek, Arhar, etc. farmers have been traditionally using farmyard manures. In these crops an average of 400-500 kgs of vermicast per acre has been found to give satisfactory yields.

  3. In third category of crops requiring moderate irrigation such as Sunflower, Barley, Maize, Wheat, etc. farmers generally use a combination of chemical fertilizers and farmyard manures. In most of these cases an average dose of 700-800 kgs of vermicast per acre has been recommended as a substitute for either of the two i.e. chemical fertilizer or farmyard manure as the case may be.
     
  4. In fourth category comprising of Tobacco, Beetroot, Onion, Carrot, Sweet Potato, Okra, Coriander, Brinjal, Cucumbers, Ginger, Opium, Mentha, etc. a dose of about 1000 kgs of vermicast per acre has been recommended as a substitute for chemical fertilizers. The use of farmyard manure has been also been reduced to 50 percent level.

  5. For the crops like Cabbage, Cauliflower, Potato, Chilli, Sugar beet, Paddy, Tomato, Garlic, Turmeric, Broccoli, etc. vermicast use of 1000-1200 kgs per acre has been recommended to substitute half the dose of chemical fertilizers. The use of farmyard manure has to be continued at previous levels.

  6. In high nutrients requiring crops such as Radish, Jute, Sugarcane, Gherkin, Banana, etc. vermicast use has generally been recommended at the rate of 1000-1500 kgs per acre. It has been observed that alongwith vermicast, full dose of farmyard manure and the balance being provided through chemical fertilizers gives optimum yields.
  7. In horticulture crops especially fruit orchards, vermicast use of 1-20 kgs per plant is being recommended depending on the stage of growth.

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Notes:

  • The above recommendations though appearing to be standard application rates, have been found to yield different results. It is therefore, advised that individual farmer should make specific assessment for his own conditions. Generally it can be done by bench marking nitrogen requirement of crops. 
     
  • In majority of the cases, it has been found that the recommended doses of chemical fertilizers separately cover macro- and micro-nutrients requirements. In case of vermicast use of chemical fertilizers to meet micro-nutrients requirements can be completely eliminated.
     
  • Vermicast use, always with hesitation has been an advantage in its promotion. It automatically gets used under part substitution approach to whatever a farmer has been generally using in the past.
     
  • Unlike chemical fertilizers which are applied at certain stages of crops, vermicast can be used at any stage of crops. As compared to one single dose, split doses have been found to give better results. Beneficial effects of vermicast use have been observed in many subsequent crops.

 

 
 

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  Books and instructional video we recommend  
 

 

This captivating video zeroes in on the tiny organisms often seen but rarely identified in a worm bin. Under Warren's microscope, well-lit colorful, and in focus, busy little creatures such as springtails and mites amuse and entertain as they busily go about in search of food or shelter. Concise, interesting, and informative narration makes this video not only fun to watch, but another excellent teaching tool for all ages.

 

  Three creative educators collaborated to produce this guide for classroom and home. Centered around a classroom worm bin, this curriculum uses over 150 worm-related activities to develop problem-solving and critical thinking skills in children grades 4-8. Rich in content in "Wormformation" paragraphs integrates science, mathematics, language arts, biology, solid waste issues, ecology, and the environment in ways that draw children into the learning process. Three sections include "The World of Worms," "Worms at Work," and "Beyond the Bin." Includes 16 appendices, resource materials, teacher's guidelines, bibliography, glossary, and index. User has permission to photocopy for use in the classroom
     

  Worms are the latest (as well as, of course, perhaps the oldest!) trend in earth-friendly gardening, and in this handy guide, the authors of DEAD SNAILS LEAVE NO TRAILS demystify the world of worm wrangling, with everything you need to know to build your own worm bin, make your garden worm-friendly, pamper your soil, and much much more.
     

  Three creative educators collaborated to produce this guide for classroom and home. Centered around a classroom worm bin, this curriculum uses over 150 worm-related activities to develop problem-solving and critical thinking skills in children grades 4-8. Rich in content in "Wormformation" paragraphs integrates science, mathematics, language arts, biology, solid waste issues, ecology, and the environment in ways that draw children into the learning process. Three sections include "The World of Worms," "Worms at Work," and "Beyond the Bin." Includes 16 appendicies, resource materials, teacher's guidelines, bibliography, glossary, and index. User has permission to photocopy for use in the classroom.
 
 

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  The Vermiculture Online Resource Guide is a project of The Agro-Ecology Council (Save Earth Save Lives Int'l). A registered non-government, non-stock and non-profitpeople's organization for environmental concerns.
source:   Vermiculture Canada -
http://www.vermicanada.com

    

 
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